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Phosphate Solubilizing Microbes: Sustainable Approach for Managing Phosphorus Deficiency in Agricultural Soils

Kanu Murmu, Sidhu Murmu

Abstract


As compared to many other major nutrients, phosphorus is by far the least mobile and accessible to plants in almost all type of soil conditions. Phosphorus occurs in abundant quantity in soils in both organic and inorganic forms; still it is frequently a prime limiting factor for plant growth. The bioavailability of inorganic phosphorus in the soil rhizosphere varies with factors that include: type of plant species, nutritional status of soil and ambient conditions. To circumvent the deficiency of phosphorus, the idea of using phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) that helps to supply phosphate to the plants in an environment-friendly and sustainable manner is being brought forward. Although the solubilization of phosphatic compounds by naturally occurring PSM is very common under in vitro conditions, the performance of PSM in situ has remained contradictory. Due to the variable performance of using PSM, their large-scale application in sustainable agriculture has been significantly hindered. Inspite of several causes being suggested for this, but none has been conclusively investigated. Despite disparities in their performance, PSM are widely used in agronomic practices so as to enhance the productivity of crops while maintaining the quality of soils. This review represents the outcome of different studies carried out on the utilization of PSM for direct application in agriculture under a wide range of agro-ecological conditions. The aim is to foster sustainable agricultural strengthening in the developing countries.

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