Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Gibberellin and Seed Germination

Vishal Jain


Plants undergo several developmental processes throughout their life-cycle. Several plant hormones participate in these growth and developmental processes. Plant hormones are chemical signals that are produced by cells in one area such as leaves, stems or root, and transported to a different area of the plant, where it generates a specific response. In this way, hormones co-ordinate different parts of the plant and regulate various physiological activities. Five major plant hormones are known: auxin, ethylene, cytokinin, abscisic acid and gibberellin. Though required in very small quantities, all of these play countless important functions in plants. This review describes the importance of gibberellin hormone in plants with main emphasis on its role in seed germination.

Full Text:



Yamaguchi S. Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation, Ann Rev Plant Biol. 2008; 59: 225–51p.

Santner A., Calderon-Villalobos L., Estelle M. Plant hormones are versatile chemical regulators of plant growth, Nat Chem Biol. 2009; 5: 301–7p.

Achard P., Genschik P. Releasing the brakes of plant growth: how GAs shutdown DELLA proteins, J Exp Bot. 2009; 60: 1085–92p.

Mahmoody M., Noori M. Effect of gibberellic acid on growth and development plants and its relationship with abiotic stress, Int J Farm Allied Sci. 2014 IJFAS Journal-2014-3-6/717-721/ 30 June, 2014.

Miransari Md, Smith D.L. Plant hormones and seed germination, Environ Exp Bot. 2014; 99: 110–21p.

Muller K., Tintelnot S., Leubner-Metzger G. Endospermlimited Brassicaceae seed germination: abscisic acid inhibits embryo-induced endosperm weakening of Lepidium sativum (cress) and endosperm rupture of cress and Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Cell Physiol. 2006; 47: 864–77p.

Hermann K., Meinhard J., Dobrev P., et al. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) – a comparative study of fruits and seeds, J Exp Bot. 2007; 58: 3047–60p.

Chen S.S.C., Chang J.L.L. Does gibberellic acid stimulate seed germination via amylase synthesis? Plant Physiol. 1972; 49: 441–2p.

Gallardo K., Job C., Groot S.P.C., et al. Proteomics of arabidopsis seed germination. A comparative study of wild-type and gibberellin-deficient seeds, Plant Physiol. 2002; 129: 823–37p.

Appleford N.E.J., Lenton J.R. Hormonal regulation of a-amylase gene expression in germinating wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, Physiol Plant. 1997; 100: 534–42p.

Yamaguchi S. Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation, Ann Rev Plant Biol. 2008; 59: 225–51p.

Ritchie S., Gilroy S. Gibberellins: regulating germination and growth, New Phytol. 1998; 140: 363–83p.

Penfield S., Josse E.-M., Kannangara R., et al. Cold and light control seed germination through the bHLH transcription factor SPATULA, Curr Biol. 2005; 15: 1998–2006p.

Achard P., Renou J.-P., Berthome R., et al. Plant DELLAs restrain growth and promote survival of adversity by reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species, Curr Biol. 2008; 18: 656–60p.

Schwechheimer C. Understanding gibberellic acid signaling—are we there yet? Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008; 11: 9–15p.

Nonogaki H. Repressionoftranscriptionfactors by microRNA during seed germination and post germination. Another level of molecular repression in seeds, Plant Sig Behav. 2008; 1: 65–7p.

Shohani F., Mehrabi A.-A., Khavarinegad R.-A., et al. The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on seed germination and early growth of lentil seedlings under salinity stress, Middle-East J Sci Res. 2014; 19(7): 995–1000p.

Patel R.G., Mankad A.U. Effect of gibberellins on seed germination of Tithonia rotundifolia blake, Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol.

Kumar R., Shamet G.S., Mehta H., et al. Influence of gibberellic acid and temperature on seed germination in Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana Wall.), Indian J Plant Physiol. 2014; 19(4): 363–7p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.