Photosynthesis forms the basis for primary production and fuels the formation of biomass with valuable chemical composition in plants. Although photosynthesis requires sunlight, the very nature of sunlight also has negative impact on photosynthesis. Visible light and ultraviolet light, the innate parts of sunlight, may cause destruction to the photosynthetic mechanism and other cellular constituents. Plants have thus evolved several protective and response mechanisms, which monitor the intensity, wavelength, duration and direction of light and diminish the negative effects of light stress. Presently, the basic molecular mechanisms and functional overlaps among light receptor and chloroplast signaling, and the consequent light‐dependent adjustments in plant performance are developing. The ability to delicately sense, signal and respond to the ambient light environment forms a key contributor to plant growth and its productivity. Light is essential for many physiological functions that control growth and development in plants. Though, crucial, too much light can be harmful and detrimental for the plant causing photo-damage. Plants have adapted numerous mechanisms that respond contrary to the light stress. Such protective response adapted by the plant depends upon the intensity and duration of the light stress.
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