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Sensitive Spectrophotometric and Flame Photometric Methods for Determination of Diclofenac Sodium in Pharmaceuticals

Nagaraju Rajendraprasad, Kanakapura Basavaiah


Diclofenac sodium (DFS) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Two new analytical methods have been developed for the assay of DFS in its pure form, tablets and injections. Spectrophotometric method is based on the oxidation of drug with known excess of cerium(IV) and oxidation of methyl orange (MO) by residual oxidant and measurement of absorbance of unreacted MO at 470 nm. Flame photometric method is based on the measurement of emission radiation of sodium from DFS by flame emission spectrometry. The methods were applicable for quantification of DFS over 1.25–12.5 and 1.0–10.0 µg mL-1 for spectrophotometric and flame photometric method, respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity values for spectrophotometric method were calculated to be 2.05 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.015 µg cm-2, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 and 0.62 (Spectrophotometric method) and 0.05 and 0.16 µg mL-1 (Flame photometric method). Intra-day and inter-day precisions were satisfactory with %RSD values of ≤2.11, and the respective accuracies were excellent with %RE values of ≤3. The methods were also validated for robustness, ruggedness and selectivity. The methods were applied to the determination of DFS in its tablets and injections with good accuracy and precision. The results were also compared with those obtained by a reference method. These methods promise the usefulness of them as routine analytical procedures for quantification of DFS in pure form and in dosage forms.

Keywords: determination, diclofenac sodium, flame photometry, pharmaceuticals, spectrophotometry

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