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Chemical Separations to Transform the Domain

A J Khobragade

Abstract


The chemical industry includes producers of industrial gases, large-volume commodity chemicals and polymers, chemical products for agricultural and medicinal uses, and performance-targeted chemical and polymer specialties. The industry produces more than 70,000 products, including raw and basic materials, intermediate materials, and finished products. The chemical industry obtains raw materials from the petroleum refining, natural gas, and mining industries, as well as from biological sources. Air emissions included 4.3 million metric tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulates. Chemical products are made by a combination of processes that include synthesis, separation, and purification. The traditional chemical engineering methods of separation and purification include distillation, crystallization, adsorption, membrane processes, absorption and stripping, and extraction. These technologies are briefly described in the present paper.

Keywords: chemical separation, chemical industry, petroleum, crude oils, distillation, crystallization, adsorption

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