Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Protein Engineering Techniques and Applications

Chhavi Jain


Protein engineering is the design of new enzymes or proteins with new or desirable functions. Protein engineering is a vast area that comprises various methods that describe the structure, function, modification, and other properties of proteins. Today, owing to the development in recombinant DNA technology and high-throughput screening techniques, protein engineering methods and applications are becoming increasingly important and widespread. The aim of this review is to provide a concise information about the available protein engineering methods and their application in the field of biological sciences.

Full Text:



Ulmer K.M. Protein engineering, Science. 1983; 219(4585): 666–71p.

Gupta M.N. Enzyme function in organic-solvents, Eur J Biochem. 1992; 203(1-2): 25–32p.

Venkatesan N., Kim B.H. Synthesis and enzyme inhibitory activities of novel peptide isosteres, Curr Med Chem. 2002; 9(24): 2243–70p.

Shiba K. MolCraft: a hierarchical approach to the synthesis of artificial proteins, J Mol Catal B: Enzymatic. 2004; 28(4-6): 145–53p.

Mattanovich D., Borth N. Applications of cell sorting in biotechnology, Microb Cell Factories. 2006; 5(12): ISSN: 1475-2859.

Shimizu Y., Kuruma Y., Ying B.W., et al. Cell-free translation systems for protein engineering, FEBS J. 2006; 273(18): 4133–40p.

Yoshikuni Y., Keasling J.D. Pathway engineering by designed divergent evolution, Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2007; 11(2): 233–9p.

Lushington G.H., Gu J.X., Wang J.L. Whither combine? New opportunities for receptor-based QSAR, Curr Med Chem. 2007; 14(17): 1863–77p.

Sidhu S.S., Koide S. Phage display for engineering and analysing protein interaction interfaces, Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2007; 17(4): 481–7p.

Gai S.A., Wittrup K.D. Yeast surface display for protein engineering and characterization, Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2007; 17(4): 467–73p.

Van der Sloot A.M., Kiel C., Serrano L., et al. Protein design in biological networks: from manipulating the input to modifying the output, Protein Eng Des Select. 2009; 22(9): 537–42p.

Olempska-Beer Z.S., Merker R.I., Ditto M.D., et al. Food-processing enzymes from recombinant microorganisms – a review, Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006; 45(2): 144–158p.

Kirk O., Borchert T.V., Fuglsang C.C. Industrial enzyme applications, Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002; 13(4): 345–51p.

Rao M.B., Tanksale A.M., Ghatge M.S., et al. Molecular and biotechnological aspects of microbial proteases, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1998; 62(3): 597–635p.

Akoh C.C., Lee G.C., Shaw J.F. Protein engineering and applications of Candida rugosa lipase isoforms, Lipids. 2004; 39(6): 513–26p.

Schallmey M., Singh A., Ward O.P. Developments in the use of Bacillus species for industrial production, Can J Microbiol. 2004; 50(1): 1–17p.

Torres E., Bustos-Jaimes I., Le Borgne S. Potential use of oxidative enzymes for the detoxification of organic pollutants, Appl Catal B-Environ. 2003; 46(1): 1–15p.

Le Borgne S., Quintero R. Biotechnological processes for the refining of petroleum, Fuel Process Technol. 2003; 81(2): 155–69p.

Rehm B.H.A. Genetics and biochemistry of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule selfassembly: the key role of polyester synthases, Biotechnol Lett. 2006; 28(4): 207–13p.

Lam L., Liu X.Y., Cao Y. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy, a potential cancer treatment, Drugs Future. 2003; 28(2): 167–73p.

Zafir-Lavie I., Michaeli Y., Reiter Y. Novel antibodies as anticancer agents, Oncogene. 2007; 26(25): 3714–33p.

Vazquez E., Ferrer-Miralles N., Mangues R., et al. Modular protein engineering in emerging cancer therapies, Curr Pharm Des. 2009; 15(8): 893–916p.

Sandhu J.S. Protein engineering of antibodies, Crit Rev Biotechnol. 1992; 12(5-6): 437–62p.

Pini A., Bracci L. Phage display of antibody fragments, Curr Protein Peptide Sci. 2000; 1(2): 155–69p.

Banta S., Megeed Z., Casali M., et al. Engineering protein and peptide building blocks for nanotechnology, J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2007; 7(2): 387–401p.

Nygren P.A. Alternative binding proteins: Affibody binding proteins developed from a small three-helix bundle scaffold, FEBS J. 2007; 275(11): 2668–76p.

Gronwall C., Stahl S. Engineered affinity proteins – Generation and applications, J Biotechnol. 2009; 140(3-4): 254–69p.

Lofblom J., Feldwisch J., Tolmachev V., et al. Affinity molecules. Engineered proteins for therapeutic, diagnostic and biotechnological applications, FEBS Lett. 2010; 584(12): 2670–80p.

Ferraz R.M., Vera A., Aris A., et al. Insertional protein engineering for analytical molecular sensing, Microb Cell Factories. 2006; 5(15): ISSN: 1475-2859.

Klug A. The discovery of zinc fingers and their applications in gene regulation and genome manipulation, Ann Rev Biochem. 2010; 79(79): 213–31p.

Guven G., Prodanovic R., Schwaneberg U. Protein engineering – an option for enzymatic biofuel cell design, Electroanalysis. 2010; 22(7-8): 765–75p.

Nagahara N., Matsumura T., Okamoto R., et al. Protein cysteine modifications: (2) Reactivity specificity and topics of medicinal chemistry and protein engineering, Curr Med Chem. 2009; 16(34): 4490–501p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.