Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Feasibility Study on Spent Pot Lining (SPL) as Raw Material in Cement Manufacture Process

A Al-Maqbali

Abstract


SPL is a waste material that comes free from the production of Aluminum industrial. SPL is separated in two fractions: a carbon-rich fraction referred to as “first cut” and a refractories rich fraction referred to as “second cut”. One commonly used solution is the processing of SPL fractions in cement kilns. The primary reasons for the cement producer to process the SPL are the reduction in raw material costs from using the refractory as a replacement raw material, and the heating value from the contained carbon. A second important reason is that the fluoride lowers the melting point of clinker, which saves on input of fuel. What is of interest is that certain parts of the SPL are contributing to the clinker process. The fluoride parts act as fluxes that lower the melting point of clinker. Other parts act as a mineralizer that enhance the formation of complexes that form the clinker. These attributes are the main driver to use second cut SPL in cement process. Investigation was carried out with a typical SPL samples collected from Sohar aluminum company which was found to contain 10.23%Na2O, 0.22% K2O, 0.034 mg/Kg cyanide and 71.52 mg/kg fluoride respectively.
Different mix was designed with varying dosages of SPL. The burnability investigations of raw mix showed free lime content of 1.58 for 0%, 1.03 for 0.5%, 0.74 for 1%, 0.68 for 1.5% and 0.44 for 2% at 1450C. The result cement compressive strength of 21.8, 31.0 and 45.6 MPa at 2, 7 and 28 days. The performance characteristic showed conformity to OS: 7 2001 for 42.5 grade of Ordinary Portland Cement.

Keywords: SPL, clinker, burnability, free lime, compressive strength

Full Text:

PDF

References


S K Chaturvedi, D Yadav, M M Ali, P Kaslivwal, “ utilization of Ecat generation at panipat reffinary in cement manufacture” National Council for Cement and Building Material, India, 2013.

Lea's Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, Peter Hewlett, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, ISBN: 0750662565

Azad Rahman, M.G. Rasul, M.M.K. Khan, S. Sharma, ” Recent development on the uses of alternative fuels in cement manufacturing process” School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Australia QLD 4702

Mustafa Kara, “Environmental and economic advantages associated with the use of RDF in cement kilns” TUBITAK MRC (Marmara Research Center) Materials Institute, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 68 (2012) 21– 28

Bahareh Reza, Atousa Soltani, Rajeev Ruparathna, Rehan Sadiq, Kasun Hewage,” Environmental and economic aspects of production and utilization ofRDF as alternative fuel in cement plants: A case study of MetroVancouver Waste Management” Hewage School of Engineering, University of British Columbia, 1137 Alumni Avenue, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 81 (2013) 105– 114

Andrew J. Saterlay , Qi Hong , Richard G. Compton , John Clarkson,” Ultrasonically enhanced leaching: removal and destruction of cyanide and other ions from used carbon cathodes” Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ, UK Alcan Smelting & Power UK, Ashington, Northumberland NE63 9YH,UK

Wendell de Queiroz Lamas,” Waste materials co-processing in cement industry: Ecological efficiency of waste reuse” Post-graduate Programmein Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Taubate, Brazil b Department of Basicand Environmental Sciences, Engineering School at Lorena, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 19 (2013) 200–207

K.T. Kaddatz, M.G. Rasul, Azad Rahman, “Alternative fuels for use in cement kilns: process impact modeling” Central Queensland University,School of Engineering and Built Environment, Rockhampton, Queensland 4702, Australia, Procedia Engineering 56 ( 2013 ) 413 – 420

Matthias Achternbosch, Klaus-Rainer Bräutigam, Nicola Hartlieb, “Impact of the use of waste on trace element concentrations in cement and concrete” Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734–242X

Erwin Thomanetz, “Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste” Waste Management & Research 30(4) 404–412

AL-Dhamri, H, Khaled Melghit, Taha, R, Ganesh Ram, “ Utilization of by-product from petroleum refinery in Portland clinker and cement manufacturing” Oman Cement Company SAOG, Oman Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Oman Sultan Qaboos University, College of Engineering, Department of Civil & Architecture, Oman

Lechtenberg, D, 2009, Spent Cell Linings from The Aluminium Smelting Process as an Alternative Fuel and Raw Material for Cement Production, Global Cement Magazine, January, p. 36-37

Oman Cement Company SAOG, Oman

H.F.W. Taylor, Cement Chemistry, Academic Press, 1990

Material safety data sheet (MSDS), spent potining, Alcan primary metal group, Canada H3A 3G1

Sohar Aluminium - Processing of SPL at Oman Cement Company, Report concerning the handling, transportation and processing of SPL, 2014

Vishwajeet S.Yadav, Murari Prasad, Jeeshan Khan, S.S.Amritphale, M.Singh, C.B.Raju, “Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud” Journal of Hazardous Materials 176 (2010) 1044-1050


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.