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Green Adhesive—Using Glyoxalated Lignin and Hydrogenated Resin as Ecologically Safe Wood Adhesive for Interior Plywood

P K Khatua, S C Sahoo, Riya Tandu, C N Pandey


Petroleum-based adhesive such as urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde resin dominates adhesive market which releases formaldehyde and VOC to the environment. The purpose of this study is to develop an adhesive based on isocyanate in combination with compounds from renewable sources like lignin, protein and starch. Adhesive formulation was developed by incorporation of hydrogenated resin, corn starch/PVOH emulsion with glyoxalated lignin (GL) and evaluation properties of the adhesive with plywood of inferior grade. Different concentrations of hydrogenated resin and corn starch emulsion were incorporated with GL to carry out the study. In order to evaluate the quality of the adhesive, 12 mm plyboard was manufactured and physical and mechanical properties was investigated. The optimum adhesive formulation, hot pressure conditions like temperature, pressure and time was optimized. The result showed that GL, hydrogenated resin, corn starch and PMDI having weight ratio 50:2:10:10, resulted in the highest water resistance when hot pressure temperature was 145–150 oC. Both water resistance and glue shear strength of plywood bonded with adhesive remained same when the hot press time was 12–16 min for 12 mm plywood. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the plywood, static bending strength and tensile strength was carried out. The mechanical properties of the plywood with unmodified lignin showed inferior mechanical properties then the modified. Bonding strength increases on addition of PMDI. The overall work has indicated that an ecologically safe wood adhesive can be prepared for wood-based panel products from renewable resources for bonding inferior-grade plywood.

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