Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Second Law of Thermodynamics in Automobile Engines and Aerospace Vehicles

Nitu Pathak


Thermodynamics is a core part of science. Nearly all scientists should have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics is considered to be the most fundamental law of science. It explains not only the working of engines, refrigerators and other equipment’s used in our daily life, but also highly advanced theories like big bang, expansion of universe, heat death, etc. Thermodynamics is the study of relationship between energy and entropy, which deals with heat and work. It is a set of theories that correlate macroscopic properties that we can measure (such as temperature, volume, and pressure) to energy and its capability to deliver work. A thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of matter of fixed mass and identity. Everything external to the system is the surroundings and the system is separated from the surroundings by boundaries. In the present article, some thermodynamics applications of the design of automobile engines and aerospace vehicles were discussed. All types of vehicles that we used to see running on-roads every day, such as cars, motorbikes, trucks, or those that fly in air i.e., aeroplanes, or the ships that run on water; all work on the basis of the second law of thermodynamics.

Keywords: automobiles, aerospace vehicles, engines, gas, heat flow, second law of thermodynamics

Full Text:



G.N. Lewis, M. Randall. Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc; 1923.

E.A. Guggenheim. Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of J.W. Gibbs. London: Methuen; 1933.

E.A. Guggenheim. Thermodynamics. An Advanced Treatment for Chemists and Physicists. 1st Edn. 1949, 5th Edn. 1967, North-Holland, Amsterdam; 1949/1967.

I. Ilya Prigogine, R. Defay. Translated by D.H. Everett. Chemical Thermodynamics. London: Longmans, Green & Co.; 1954. Includes classical non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

S. Carnot. Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire. 1824.

P. Perrot. A to Z of Thermodynamics. Oxford University Press; 1998. ISBN 0-19-856552-6. OCLC 123283342.

H.C. Van Ness. Understanding Thermodynamics. Dover Publications, Inc.; 1983. ISBN 9780486632773. OCLC 8846081.

J.S. Dugdale. Entropy and its Physical Meaning. Taylor and Francis; 1998. ISBN 0-7484-0569-0. OCLC 36457809.

J.M. Smith, H.C. Van Ness, M.M. Abbott. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. McGraw Hill; 2005. ISBN 0-07-310445-0. OCLC 56491111.

J.R. Partington. A Short History of Chemistry. Dover; 1989. OCLC 19353301.

Y.A. Cengel, M.A. Boles. Thermodynamics – An Engineering Approach. McGraw-Hill; 2005. ISBN 0-07-310768-9.


  • There are currently no refbacks.